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けいかん 警官 policeman
ちず 地図 map
かびん 花瓶 flower vase
せんす 扇子 folding fan
ジャケット jacket
コート coat
スカート skirt
れいぞうこ 冷蔵庫 refrigerator
ヒーター heater
スプーン spoon
フォーク fork
(お)さら お皿 plates, dish
だいどころ・キッチン 台所 kitchen
ほんだな 本棚 bookshelf
けんさ 検査 examination/inspection
ニュース news
てんきよほう 天気予報 weather forecast
ゆき snow
そら sky
かぜ breeze, wind
はれ fair weather
くもり 曇り cloudy
ばくすい 爆睡 to sleep  tightly
りゅうがく 留学 studying abroad
いけん 意見 opinion, idea
きょうみ 興味 interest
むこう 向こう beyond, over there
つぎ next

どうし (VERBS)


きづきます to notice
はります 貼ります to post, stick, paste
やくします 訳します to translate


かんがえます 考えます to think, consider
しらべます 調べます investigate, search
きめます 決めます to decide


かくにんします 確認します to confirm
ごうかくします 合格します to pass


さいしょに 最初に at first
はじめて 初めて first time
だんだん gradually
たぶん probably, maybe
じっさいに in actual fact
しかし however, but



1. Adjectival Clause

Nouns are modified using different ways in the past lessons. It can be modified using another noun (N1の N2), い-adjectives and な-adjectives.

アービエさん      Abbie’s car/ car of Abbie

みつびしのくるま     Mitsubishi car/ a car made by Mitsubishi

にほん      Japanese’ car/ a car originated from Japan

はやい    fast car/a car that is fast

べんりな るまconvenient car/a carthatis convenient

かいたい a car that I want to buy

You can also use sentences to modify nouns by using the plain forms.

いく                    the person who will go

いかない            the person who will not go

いった ひと       the person who went

いかなかった    the person who did not go

いっている        the person who goes/ person who is going

いく                     a place where I will go

いかない             a place where I will not go

いった ところ    a place where I went

いかなかった    a place where I did not go

いっている        a place where I go/place where I am going

いく                     the day when I will go

いかない            the day when I will not go

いった    ひ        the day when I went

いかなかった    the day when I did not go

いっている        the day when I go/ day when I am going

Note: The words like “who, where, when, that, etc. are used in English translation but is not needed in Japanese.

The pattern could be used to describe as noun, especially when modification is needed to further explain what that noun is. For example, we could describe the following nouns like these:

カメラ                    →しゃしんを とる もの

ゆうびんきょく   →てがみを おくる ところ

せんせい                →生徒にいろいろなことを


2. ~と いいます

A. Speaker は 「Sentence」 といいます

This is actually a direct speech. What the speaker  said was put in between the quotation mark 「」. This pattern is used direct speech is usually used in writing and not in speaking.

a) 日本人 は 食べるまえ、「いただきます」 と言います。

Japanese say  “itadakimasu”  before meal.

B. Speaker は Sentence(Plain form) といいました

In speaking you have to use indirect speech to convey what someone has said. Since you cannot see the quotation mark in speaking, you have to change the sentence of what someone has said to plain form.

b)  たなかさんは 学生だ といいました。

Mr Tanaka said he is a student.

3. Plain form + とおもいます。

The verb 思います which means “to think”, expresses the speaker’s opinion, ideas and feelings towards what is being spoken about.

a) 明日(あした)は休(やす)みだと思(おも)います.

I think tomorrow is a holiday.

b)  先生はとても親切(しんせつ)だと思います。

I think my teacher is very kind.

Note: In Japanese grammar, a person’s feeling emotion or opinion can only be expressed by the person experiencing it. Therefore, verbs like おもいます can only express the speaker’s own opinion or feelings towards what he/she think about the matter.

To ask opinion of other people, the subject is usually mark by ~について which means “about” instead of the usual subject marker は. The answer, uses the usual particle は.

A: 「あたらしい 先生について、どう思いますか」

What do you think about the new teacher?

B:  「そうですね。(先生)きびしいと 思います。」

Hmmm. I think he is strict.

~だうと 思う

The plain form of でしょう  is  だろうit can be used with ~と おもうto cautiously phrase a prediction or an analysis. Probability adverbs such as たぶん,おそら and きっとare sometimes used so the speaker’s conjecture will sound more certain.

4. ~でしょう。

[~でしょう] is an expression attached at the end of a sentence to make a guess or a prediction.

Verb+ でしょう

Noun + でしょう

Verb + でしょう

Adjective + でしょう

a)  明日 雨が 降るでしょう。

It will probably rain tomorrow.

b) 明日 雨が 降ないでしょう。

It probably won’t rain tomorrow.

  • The word たぶん which means “maybe” also expresses the speaker’s guess or prediction.  Mostly used in weather forecast.

c) たぶん、来週から 雪(ゆき)が 降るでしょう。

Maybe, snow will fall starting next week.

  • This can also be used to questions でしょうか, which is used to invite another person’s opinion or guess.

d)  日本語と 英語と どちらが 難(むずか)しいでしょうか。

Which would you say is more difficult? Japanese or English?

  • でしょうか is more polite than ですか and therefore recommended to use when giving suggestions, inviting, offering, asking permission, etc.

e) コーヒーを もう いっぱい いかが でしょうか。

Would you like one more cup of coffee?

でしょう is sometimes pronounced shorter in casual conversation to check if the one you are speaking with agrees that you have the correct understanding about what you said.

f) 佐藤(さとう)さん、英語が 分かるでしょう。これ, 訳(やく)してくれない?

Ms. Satou, you can understand English right? Can you translate this for me?

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