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しょうらい 将来 future
かいもの 買い物 shopping
ドレス dress
ゆかた 浴衣 yukata (informal kimono)
にんぎょう にんぎょう doll
ドライバー screw driver
よびぶひん 予備部品 spare parts
くすりや 薬屋

pharmacy, drugstore

いたみどめ 痛み止め painkiller
かしゅ 歌手 singer
げんば 現場 field, site
たな shelf
くつした 靴下 socks
タイプライター typewriter
びょうき 病気 illness, ill
まち town, city
まどぐち 窓口 window, teller
きかい 機械 machine
ふうとう 封筒 envelope
げんかん 玄関 entrance
パスポート passport
ううん no (informal)
うん yes (informal)

どうし (VERBS)


よろこびます 喜びます to be pleased, be glad
よごします 汚します to soil, stain
ひきます 弾きます to play
もどします 戻します to return (things)
ぬぎます to take off (clothes)
はこびます 運びます to carry, transport
なおります 治ります to get cured



おぼえます 覚えます to  memorize, remember
なげます 投げます to throw, pitch



そうじします 掃除します to clean



ひつよう 必要 necessary
いや disgusting
ふべん 不便 inconvenient
べんり 便利 convenient


1.  (私は) Noun が ほしいです

This expression is only used for first person, so it’s always “watashi wa Noun ga hoshii desu”. However “watashi wa” is normally omitted as it’s obvious that the speaker is talking as the first person.

a) 今日はとても暑(あつ)いです。私は冷(つめ)たいジュース が ほしいです。

                Today is very hot. I want cold juice.

 b)  私は日本人の友達(ともだち) が ほしいです。

     I want a Japanese friend.

  • As ほしい (hoshii) is an i-adjective, the negative form and past tense (affirmative and negative) follow how an i-adjective changes form.
Present Affirmative: ほしいです
Present Negative: ほしくないです
Past Affirmative: ほしかったです
Past Negative: ほしくなかったです

2.  Verb {stem of masu-form} たい 

This pattern is used to express the speaker’s desire to do something.  This conjugation can be made by getting the V―stem that is by omitting ます and then adding たい into a verb. The tenses are conjugated in the same way as い-adjectives. However sometimes particle を (wo) is changed to が (ga). It’s Ok to use either of them, but most of the time が (ga) is used.

a) 私は 車を 買いたい です。

        I want to buy a car.

b) 私は 中国語 を 習いたい です。

       I want to learn Chinese Language.

  • This pattern cannot be used to talk about what a third person wants.
  • It is not proper way to used this pattern to ask or inviting someone.


 3. ~は~が すき/きらい/じょうず/へた です

This pattern is used for stating the subject likes and dislikes, and also where the speaker is good at or poor at.

a) 妹(いもうと)は 音楽(おんがく)が すきです。

     My little sister likes music.

 b) 弟(おとうと)は 野菜(やさい)が きらいです。

     My littlebrother hates vegetables.

 c) 小林(こばやし)さんは バスケシトボールが 上手(じょうず)です。

     Mr. Koabayashi is good at basketball.

d) 私(わたし)は 漢字(かんじ)が 下手(へた)です。

     I am poor at Kanji.

  • The speaker cannot use 上手(じょうず) to refer to him/herself. In place of 上手(じょうず), it is better to use とくい to refer to oneself’s specially.

e) わたしは 料理(りょうり)が とくいです。

        I am good in cooking.

4. (Reason)~から。

The conjuction から indicates that the first sentence is the reason for the second sentence. When asking the reason, the interrogative どうして  is used. Take note that in English, the reason  the S1 or the S2 but in Japanese grammar, the reason is always S1 is the reason for S2.

a) 今日は 息子の誕生日(たんじょうび)ですから、早(はや)く帰(かえ)ります。

      Because today is my son’s birthday, I will go home early.

 b) 明日、 どうして マニラヘ いきますか。

       Why will you go to Manila tomorrow

 …明日、姉(あね)に 会いますから マニラヘ いきます。

  Because I will meet my older sister (tomorrow), I’ll go to Manila.

  • In spoken language, the interrogative なんで is commonly used instead of どうして to ask reason


5. Pairs of Transitive Vt and Intransitive Verbs Vi

There are pairs of transitive and intransitive verbs in Japanese grammar.  Transitive verbs or 他動詞 (tadoushi) are verbs indicating personal action of changing something. The focus is on someone who did the action.  On the other hand, intransitive verbs or 自動詞 (jidoushi) are verbs indicating movement of something.

Transitive verb:  Person / Object Verb

Intransitive verb:  Noun / Verb

From the sentence patterns that since an transitive verb is talking about action done by someone, there is always a direct object to act upon. Therefore particle を (wo) is always being used.

As for intransitive verbs, since the focus is on the movement and not on the person who did the action, particle が (ga) is normally used.

a) 田中さんはタクシー を とめました。

   Mr. Tanaka stopped the taxi.

 b) タクシー が とまりました。

  The taxi stopped

  • Transitive verb (-form) あります

  a)  まど しめてあります。

    The window has been closed (by someone).

  • Intransitive verb (-form) います

  b)  まど しまっています。

    The window was closed.

if you want to emphasize on the fact that someone has closed the window in the past and it still remain closed, use Transitive verb (て-form) あります. If you don’t care who closed the window and just want to describe the fact that the window was closed and it still remain closed, use Intransitive verb (て-form) います.

  • Note: that since you are making a description, the particle used is が (ga) instead of を (wo) for the case of Transitive verb (て-form) あります. Therefore it is wrong to say まど を しめてあります (mado wo shimete arimasu).


6.~そのまえに /~Nのまえに /~V  dict. まえに。

The conjuction そのまえにis used to follow up a sentence that indicates an action that should be done first.

a) 私(わたし)は 友達(ともだち)の 家(いえ)に いきます。その前(まえ)に電話(でんわ)をします。

    I will go to my friend’s house. Before that, I make a phone call.

N の まえに indicates that the verb takes place before the noun. It is considered a time expression and therefore can be used to answer the questions about time.

b) 山田さんは ちょうれい のまえに きました。

      Mr. Yamada came before the morning assembly.

V- dict. まえに indicates that the V- dict. Takes place before the V at the end of the sentence.

Unlike in English grammar where the two sentences can be written vice-versa, in Japanese grammar, the first action must be stated first then the second action must always be in the end. The first action indicated by まえに is considered a time expression therefore, can answer the questions about time.

 c) ここへ くるまえに たなかさんに あいました。

        I met him before I came here. / Before I came here, I met him.

d) レポートは 仕事 が はじまるまえに 出しました。

I submitted my report before my work begins.


 7. ~ができます (Can do Noun)

To express what a person can do, the verb  [できます]  is used.  Like [わかります], this verb also expresses a potential or ability and therefore uses the particle [が] for the noun.

a)妹(いもうと)は 折(お)り紙(がみ)が できました。

My little sister can do origami.

> It can also be used when the speaker wants to express that something was achieved or acquired by the subject.

b) 子供は 友達(ともだち)が できました。

My child was able to get friends.

> It can also be used to indicate that a building, etc. was build or finished.

c) 新しい デパートが できました。

The new department store was finished.


8. V-dict. ことが できます (Can do Verb

The pattern V-dict. ことが できます can be used to express what the subject can do.

a) ジョンさんは 漢字(かんじ)を 読(よ)みます。

John reads Kanji.

ジョンさんは 漢字(かんじ)を 読(よ)む ごとが できます。

John can read Kanji.

b) 友達(ともだち)は 日本語(にほんご)を 話します。My friendspeaks Japanese.

友達(ともだち)は 日本語(にほんご)を 話(はな)すことが できます。

My friend can speak Japanese.

> The Group 3 or irregular verbs can be expressed in two different patterns:

a) 友達は タクシーをうんてんします。

My friend drives a taxi.

友達は タクシーをすることができます。

My friend can drive a taxi.

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