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MODULE DESCRIPTOR : This module covers the knowledge, skills and attitudes required to comply with the regulatory and organizational requirements for occupational health and safety such as identifying, evaluating and maintaining occupational health and safety (OHS) awareness.

At the end of this lesson, you are expected to do the following:

LO1. Identify hazards and risks.
LO2. Evaluate hazards and risks.
LO3. Control hazards and risks.
LO4. Maintain occupational health and safety awareness.

Requirements in Identifying Hazards
• Requirements in Conducting/Identifying Hazards
• Survey the workplace to identify hazards
• This survey must be in writing and must be available to all workers
• Determine whether any hazard requires Personal Protective Equipment
• Pay special attention to working conditions or process that can produce hazards.
• Reassess hazards whenever necessary, especially when new equipment is installed to avoid accidents.
• Any reassessment must be written and must be available to workers upon request.

Accident Prevention Signs and Tags

1. General. Signs and symbols required shall be visible at all times when work is being performed, and shall be removed or covered promptly when the hazard does not exist anymore.
2. Danger Signs. Danger signs shall be used only where an immediate hazard exists. Danger signs should be read as the predominating color for the upper panel; outline on the borders; and a white lower panel for additional sign wording.
3. Caution Signs. Caution signs shall be used only to warn against or caution against practices. Caution sign shall have yellow as the predominating color; black upper panel and borders; yellow lettering of “caution” on the black panel; and the lower yellow panel for the additional sign wording. Black lettering shall be used for additional wording. Standard color of the background shall be yellow; and the panel, black with yellow letters. Any letter used against the yellow background shall be black. The colors shall be those of opaque glossy samples.
4. Exit Signs. Exit signs, when required, shall be lettered in legible red letters, not less than 6 inches high, on a white field and the principal stroke of the letters shall be at least three-fourths in width.
5. Safety Instructions Signs. Safety instruction signs, when used, shall be with green upper panel with white letters to convey the principal message. Any additional wording on the sign shall be black letters on the white background.
6. Directional Signs. Directional signs, other than automotive traffic signs specified in the paragraph below, shall be white with a black panel and white directional symbol. Any wording on the sign shall be black letters on the white background.
7. Traffic Signs. Construction areas shall be posted with legible traffic signs at point hazard. All traffic control signs or devices used for protection of construction workers shall conform to Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standards.
8. Accidental Prevention Tags. Accident prevention tags shall be used as temporary means of warning of an existing hazard such as defected tools, equipments, etc. They shall not be used in place of, or as a substitute for, accident prevention signs. Specifications for accident prevention tags similar as shown below shall apply.

Working conditions that can produce hazards

1. Falling objects
2. Objects that can puncture skin
3. Objects that could roll over worker’s feet
4. Toxic chemicals
5. Heat
6. Radiation

Signs, Signals and Barricades

Signs, Signals and Barricades are important, if not critical, to the safety of the construction workers.

LO2: Evaluate hazards and risks

Evaluating risks is a key step in working with hazardous materials, instrumentation, and equipment. A risk assessment will in part examine the probability that an adverse event will occur and the consequence of that event when working with hazardous materials. Ultimately, this can help to determine the proper controls that will be needed to avoid the adverse event. A risk assessment can reduce the likelihood that faculty, staff, or students may be unnecessarily exposed to a laboratory hazard.

Supervisors are responsible for properly assessing the hazards in their individual lab areas. Safety staff are available to assist with conducting these assessments.

An exposure assessment is one portion of a risk assessment. This portion examines the exposure limits of hazardous chemicals in order to help determine appropriate controls. There are a variety of exposure limits that different regulatory agencies use that may be useful. Every worker should be exposed to levels below these limits when working with chemicals.

PEL, Permissible Exposure Limit – OSHA
TLV, Threshold Limit Value – ACGIH
REL, Recommended Exposure Limit – NIOSH
Exposure assessments can be performed in two ways: monitoring and professional opinion.

A proper risk assessment includes the following:

Perform a comprehensive review of a specific hazard (including an exposure assessment), e.g. chemical or biological material to be used or hazardous activity or procedure to be performed,
Document the review
Submit specific protocols to appropriate UVM review boards as needed (IBC, IRB, IACUC, etc.), and
Re-evaluate lab tasks when changes are made to current procedures.

Contact Safety staff if you would like us to help conduct a comprehensive review of your lab materials or activities. Always be sure to have proper controls in place before performing a procedure.

LO3: Control hazards and risks
Signs and their location:
1. Danger Signs – are used only where immediate hazards exist. They are printed in red as the predominating color.
2. Caution Signs – are used to warn against potential hazards.
3. Exit Signs – are printed in legible red letters for exits.
4. Safety Instructions Signs
5. Accidental Prevention Tags – are used as temporary means of warning to existing hazards, such as defection, tools and equipment.
6. Barricades – are used for protection of employees

Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)

Here are the types of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) use for safety purposes:

1. Face protection – Goggles and face protection must be used when at risk from flying particles, liquid chemicals, acids or caustic liquids and chemical gases. There are various goggles for face protection with certain design criteria for safety.

2. Foot Protection – Safety shoes with impact protection are used in work areas where heavy objects or tools could be accidentally dropped on the feet. Safety shoes with puncture protection are required when working around nails, wire tacks, scrap metals and other objects that could fierce the feet.
3. Hand Protection Gloves – are required to protect your hands from cuts, scrapes, punctures, burns, chemical absorption, and exhaust temperatures. It is crucial that the type of glove being used is the right one for the job.

4. Hearing Protection – Appropriate ear muffs or ear plugs must be made available as a last resort if it is not possible to make the workplace less noisy. The requirement is a small part of the occupational noise exposure standard which requires employers to ensure that workers are exposed to less than 90 decibels of noise over an 8 hour period.

5. Respirators – Appropriate respirators must be worn as a last resort if it is not possible

OHS Procedures for controlling hazards and risks.

1. Conduct a hazard assessment like
• Survey workplace to identify hazards (put them in writing)
• Determine whether any hazard required Personal Protective Equipment.
• Pay attention to working conditions that can produce hazards
• Reassess hazards whenever necessary, especially when new equipment is installed
2. Select appropriate equipment. Ensure that all Personal Protective Equipment used is the right kind of equipment for the job, and is maintained properly
3. Have knowledge on the following:
• Which PPE is necessary
• How to identify if it fits properly
• How to put on, remove, adjust and wear Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
• How to dispose of Personal Protective Equipment(PPE)
• The limitation of using Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
Procedure in dealing with workplace, accidents, fire and Emergencies.

A. Dealing with Accidents

1. Keep calm, don’t panic and study the situation.
2. Report immediately to your teacher
3. Apply first aid to the victim while waiting for a nurse or a physician
4. Bring the patient to the nearest clinic or hospital

B. Dealing with Fire

1. Do not panic, stay calm.
2. Call the attention of everybody.
3. Use your firefighting equipment to control extinguish the fire.
4. Call the office or the fire station

C. Dealing with Emergencies

To take appropriate actions in any emergency, follow the three basic emergency action step

1. Check the scene and the victim.
2. Call the local emergency number to activate the EMS system.
3. Ask a conscious victim’s permission to provide care.

LO4: Maintain occupational health and safety awareness

The 5S

The 5Ss are Japanese words that start with letter S. But in the Philippines, some thought of 5 English words that all begin with letter S which is equivalent to these Japanese words; it is therefore necessary to remember the Japanese’ 5Ss. What is important aside from retaining this into our minds is to make it part of our daily habit.

How to practice 5Ss?

1. SEIRI (SORT) means “take out unnecessary items and dispose”

• Step 1 – Look around your workplace. Discover and identify items which are unnecessary to your work. Then, dispose all unnecessary items. “NEVER KEEP ANYTHING WHICH IS UNNECESSARY TO YOUR WORK.”
• Step 2 – If you cannot decide whether an item is necessary or not, put “DISPOSAL NOTICE” with the data on the item and set item aside.
• Step 3 – After a period, say two months, check if someone has the item or not. If no one needed the item, that means the item is not needed for your work.

Note: Disposal can be done in either of the following ways:

1. Sell it to outside of the workplace.
2. Move to other department/section where the item is needed.
3. Throw it away, dispose as garbage.
4. In disposing the belongings, it is better to make people know who has the authority for disposal.
5. It is also better to make people know where to return excessive stock of materials and supplies.
6. While looking around for unnecessary items in your workplace, look at every nook like when you are looking for cockroaches. It will be a bonus to you if you find some useful items.

2. SEITON (SYSTEMATIZE) means “Arrange necessary items in good order to use”

• Step 1.Make sure that all unnecessary items are eliminated from your workplace.
• Step 2.Decide with your workmates which things to put when taking into account the flow of your work. The principle is to put most frequently needed items close to the user so as to minimize the movement of the person. Things which are not so often used could not be placed slightly further away.
• Step 3. It is necessary to make sure that everyone at your workplace knows what is kept for efficient use. Make a list of things with location and put it in a locker or cabinet. Label each drawer/cabinet to show what is kept inside.

Note: The object of SEITON (SYSTEMATIZED) is to make your workplace a safe and efficient place to work in.

3. SEISO (SWEEP) means “Clean your workplace”.

There is a very strong correlation between quality of products and cleanliness of the workplace where products are manufactured. Accordingly, SEISO (SWEEP) should be practiced every day, and sometimes, even during the day.
The following are suggested for your SEISO (SWEEP) operation:

• Do not wait until things get dirty. Clean your workplace, including machines, equipment, tools and furniture regularly so that they do not have chance to get dirty.
• Put things inside for 3 minutes every day.
• You and your workmates should be responsible for the dirty works around you. The janitors or sweepers will look after the common areas only.
• Never throw anything and make it your habit.
• Cleaning is also checking.

4. SEIKETSU (SANITIZE) means” Maintain high standard of housekeeping”.
So as not to waste your effort, do not stop after implementing initial 3Ss.

The following are suggested for your SEIKETSU(SANITIZE) operation:
• Create a maintenance system for housekeeping. Make a schedule of cleaning for your workplace.
• Interdepartmental competition is a very effective means of sustaining and enhancing people’s interest on 5Ss.
1. Indicate the names of the persons responsible for the work area and for the machine.
2. Regular inspection and evaluation on the level of 4Ss by each work are necessary.
3. Do not criticize poor cases, but also praise and commend good practices or good performances.

5. SHITSUKE (SELF-DISCIPLINE) means “Do things spontaneously without being told or ordered.”
It is to make every one practice 4Ss spontaneously and willingly as habit or way of life. There is no other way to foster such culture than practicing 4Ss regularly until such time when everyone becomes fond of 5Ss.
To help such corporate culture conducive to 5Ss, the following need to be emphasized:

• Treat your workplace as your own home.
• You are spending most of your “WAKING TIME” at your workplace than at home.
• Your workplace is an important place where to make income for yourself and your family. • Make your workplace as clean and comfortable as your home.

Note: In enhancing SHITSUKE (SELF-DISCIPLINE) of workers in a workplace, the rules of management are very important. People with managerial duties should be worthy of respect and emulation.


1. The 5Ss makes your workplace more pleasant. In practicing 5Ss, you have to start from discussing and agreeing what to put for efficient use by everyone. With your workmates, you have to clean the workplace. Such human relation and working environment will make you and your workplace pleasant.
2. The 5Ss makes your work more efficient. If you have to look for something and take so much time finding it, you are not only wasting your time but also wasting your energy and moral. On the other hand, if everything at your workplace is arranged in proper order and readily available for use; your work flow will always be very smooth. It improves not only your efficiency but also improves the rhythm of your work and the more you will enjoy it. If you have a work, better to enjoy it.
3. The 5Ss improves your safety. A clear and tidy working environment where everything is properly placed, where clear instructions are readily available, and where no one throws anything is safer place to work in. Practicing 5Ss improves your own safety. You can enjoy your work more with less risk.<br
4. The 5Ss improves quality of your work and your products. People affect environment. On the other hand, the environment also affects people. If you are accustomed to work in a clear and tidy environment, you can develop your sensitivity so that you can feel and identify any defect in work. On the contrary, messy and untidy environment will adversely affect your sensitivity. Therefore, good environment will improve the quality of your work. It is quite natural that quality products come only from clean and well-organized workplace.
5. The 5Ss makes a quality life of people. The process of 5Ss requires people to think, consult and agree with others and cooperate with each other. At the same time, practicing the 5Ss gives people satisfaction of being creative, friendly with others and seeing chances better.

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